Now that the favour of icon veneration was restored, Constantine VI was seventeen and capable of ruling on his own. [63] This restored the Roman Empire of the west. [64] He proposed marriage to Empress Irene, which she consented. [6] Just over a month later, on December 17th, Irene was crowned Empress of the Byzantine Empire and married Leo IV at the chapel of St. [24] In February 781, Elpidios, the Strategos (Governor) of Sicily, planned to depose her and make Nikephoros regent for Constantine VI. It is often claimed she called herself basileus, 'emperor'. MILLER, D. A. Many courtiers were arrested, tortured, and imprisoned. She was also known to have initiated the Second Council of Nicea. [22] Her first coins were issued with Constantine VI placed on the lesser important side of the coin. Nikephoros’s army was arrested, tortured, and banished. She founded a province called Macedonia.[35]. Constantine VI conspired to take the throne himself. 0. [67], Thus, Empress Irene’s reign had been largely unsuccessful[68]. Occupation: empress consort, regent and co-ruler with her son, ruler in her own right Dates: lived about 752 – August 9, 803, ruled as co-regent 780 – 797, ruled in her own right 797 – October 31, 802 Also known as Empress Irene, Eirene (Greek) She summoned Elpidios to Constantinople, but the Sicilians refused to surrender him to her. Her reign was beset by rebellions and wars. By a fortuitous occurrence, the plot was thwarted by an earthquake. Definition. [32], The next year, Irene sent Staurakios, her favourite courtier, against the Slavs in Northern Greece, where he made the Slavs pay tribute to the empire. [14] In 780, he made Paul of Cyprus, who was suspected of being an iconophile, to swear an oath to uphold iconoclasm. [41] Irene found another bride for him. Irene was born in Athens, presumably between 750 and 755 (the actual date is unknown, but she can hardly have been older than her husband, Leo IV, who was born in January 750)[] In 769 the iconoclast emperorConstantine V Copronymus(the 'dung-named') wanted a bride for his eldest son and heir Leo [1] After her death, she became a saint in the Eastern Orthodox Church[2]. A After her death, she became a saint in the Eastern Orthodox Church. [26] A year later, she sent a fleet to Sicily against Elpidios. A king could not be succeeded by his mother or a daughter. Irene was also known for her generous financial policies, which were especially friendly to monasteries. [17], On September 8, 780, Leo IV died, leaving his wife free to instil her beliefs as regent for their ten-year-old son, Constantine V.I[18] However, many people opposed her rule as regent. quotations ▼ (tarot) The third trump or major arcana card of … “Irene, Byzantine Empress.” New Catholic Encyclopedia, 2nd ed., vol. [58] Irene was now sole ruler of the Byzantine empire. Empress Irene Detail of the Pala d'Oro, Saint Mark's, Venice, Italy ca. Byzantine Empresses: Women and Power in Byzantium AD 527-1204, Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window), Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window), Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window), Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window), Click to share on Pinterest (Opens in new window), Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window), Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window). It is often claimed she called herself " … To exclude from inheritance or the right to inherit. The Emperor Irene. Synonym Discussion of impress. [56] When Constantine VI discovered the plot to overthrow him, he fled. On January 14, 771, Irene gave birth to a son named Constantine VI. Your data will be shared with Google and other ad vendors. [16] The reason for these persecutions is most likely because Irene had been hiring iconophile supporters within the palace, and Leo IV was trying to clean up his palace. Irene of Athens (Greek: Εἰρήνη ἡ Ἀθηναία, Eirénē ē Athēnaía; c. 752 – 9 August 803), surnamed Sarantapechaina (Σαρανταπήχαινα), was Byzantine empress by marriage to Emperor Leo IV from 775 to 780, regent during the minority of their son Constantine VI from 780 until 790, co-regent from 792 until 797, and finally sole ruler and first empress regnant of the Byzantine Empirefrom 797 to 802. [36] In 784, she replaced the Patriarch of Constantinople with the moderate Tarasius. 8, Gale, 2004, pp. Impress definition, to affect deeply or strongly in mind or feelings; influence in opinion: He impressed us as a sincere young man. [44] He planned a revolt inside the palace. A queen regnant (plural: queens regnant) is a female monarch, equivalent in rank and title to a king, who reigns in her own right over a realm known as a "kingdom"; as opposed to a queen consort, who is the wife of a reigning king; or a queen regent, who is the guardian of a child monarch and rules temporarily in the child's stead, be it de jure in sharing power, or de facto in ruling alone. Lauralee 8, Gale, 2004, pp. The empress Theodora (842-857) hung, crucified, beheaded or drowned some Ioo,000 of them, and drove yet more over the frontier, where from Argaeum, Amara, Tephrike and other strongholds their generals Karbeas and Chrysocheir harried the empire, until 873, when … Constantine was the son of Leo IV (r. 775-780 CE) and when, in 780 CE, his father died of fever, aged just 30, Constantine became emperor Constantine VI. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Empress Irene of Athens was the first female ruler of the Byzantine Empire. Garland, Lynda. [50] He waged a luckless war on the Bulgars in April 791 and the Arabs in October. There also was the statue of the empress Eudoxia, famous in the history of Chrysostom, the pedestal of which is preserved near the church of St Irene. A Byzantine empress who ruled from 797–802, during the time of Charlemagne's coronation. However, most historians believe that it was because of Irene’s beauty. In 787, however, the empress Irene convoked the seventh ecumenical council at Nicaea at which Iconoclasm was condemned and the use of images was reestablished. Definition and Origins. Her men were victorious. Find patient medical information for Enpresse Oral on WebMD including its uses, side effects and safety, interactions, pictures, warnings and user ratings. Irene, Byzantine ruler and saint of the Greek Orthodox Church who was instrumental in restoring the use of icons in the Eastern Roman Empire. Irene of Athens An East Roman (Byzantine) empress, Irene of Athens (752-803) convened the Seventh Ecumenical Council and restored the veneration of icons in the Byzantine Empire. [71] Because of her restoration of icon-worship, she was canonised in the Eastern Orthodox Church as a saint.[72]. [69] By the end of her reign, the Byzantines were no longer paying tribute to the Bulgars. Aetios or Aetius (Greek Ἀέτιος) was a Byzantine eunuch official and one of the most trusted advisers of Byzantine empress Irene of Athens (r. 797–802). However, as the new emperor was still a minor at nine or ten years of age, his mother Empress Irene ruled as his regent, a role she performed until 790 CE. To prevent this, Irene had to negotiate an immense annual tribute of 70,000 or 90,000 dinars to the Abbasids for a three-year truce. Empress Irene (image from “Pala d’Oro”, Venice) Not much is known about Irene’s early life. The wife or widow of an emperor or equated ruler. She was Maria of Amnia. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Empress Irene of Athens was the first female ruler of the Byzantine Empire. After Irene's rise to sole rule, Aetios developed an intense rivalry with her eunuch chief minister Staurakios. [3] In 769,  Emperor Constantine V chose her as a bride for his son and co-ruler Leo IV. From 797 to 802 CE she ruled as emperor in her own right, the first woman to do so in Byzantine history.During her lacklustre reign, Irene ruthlessly schemed and plotted to keep the throne she would lose and regain three times, but she is chiefly remembered for restoring the … Irene of Athens (c. 752 – 803 AD) was Byzantine empress from 797 to 802. [65], However, her overthrow prevented her marriage to Charlemagne. , 2nd ed., vol. [53]  On October 7, 796, he entered into an unholy marriage with Theodote, his mistress. Except where noted, content and user contributions on this site are licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0 with attribution required. [21], During Irene’s reign as regent for her son, she named herself co-ruler. The Year of the Duchess of Windsor (2021), Burial places of the Queens and Consorts of England, Burial places of the Queens Consort of France, Burial places of the Queens and Consorts of Portugal, Burial Places of the Queens and Consorts of Spain, Carolina of Orange-Nassau – Ancestress of the Royal Houses of Europe, Queen Wilhelmina – A collection of articles. Stephen.[7]. Subscribe to our free weekly newsletter and join our 5,128 subscribers to stay up to date on History of Royal Women's articles! [25] When Irene learned about the plot, she was furious. 0 St Irene , founded by Constantine, and repaired by Justinian, is in its present form mainly a restoration by Leo the Isaurian, in the middle of the 8th century. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. [60] No woman had ever reigned on her own in the Roman empire before. [31] Irene demoted Tatzates and formed a policy to remove Constantine V’s generals from high command. Etymology: Irène, from Εἰρήνη eirēnē "peace", name of a goddess of peace, of early Christian saints, and of an 8th-century Byzantine empress. On Christmas Day in 800, during a visit to Rome, the Pope placed an imperial crown on Charlemagne’s head and gave him the title of “Holy Roman Emperor”. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. Prior to becoming Empress regnant, Irene had been empress consort from 775 to 780, and empress dowager and regent from 780 to 797. 135-138. [45] Forcing Irene and Constantine VI to leave the palace to seek shelter, Staurakios formed a counter-attack in which Irene’s men succeeded. irene (empress) sound ,irene (empress) pronunciation, how to pronounce irene (empress), click to play the pronunciation audio of irene (empress) [52] He shocked the public in 795 when he repudiated his Empress and placed her in a convent. Leo began to promote iconoclast monasteries. [55] This allowed his mother to forge a coup against her son. [28] The attack was a success, but Tatzates, the Strategos of the Bucellarii, took his men and defected from Irene’s army to the Arabs. 7, Gale, Victoria Kaʻiulani – The last Crown Princess of Hawaii. [33]In May, she and Constantine VI visited the Greek province of Thrace. [15] During Lent of that year, Leo IV began to persecute Iconophiles. Irene celebrated his victory by hosting a triumph in 784. Your email address will not be published. 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